Seven mutants with an increased lysine level in dry matter of an integrate kernel were among 183 induced mutants with a modified endosperm (Table 1).
For all mutants a floury endosperm pattern was typical. The recessive mutants controlling this character were not-allelic to the identified genes, O1, O2, fl2, O5. When symbolizing the mutants we tried to express the most typical characters of the phenotypical manifestation. The first two letters of the symbol reflect the changes in kernel pattern: f - floury endosperm, fr (or f) - friable endosperm, sh - shrunken endosperm, m - miniature kernel, w - white endosperm. The last letter as a rule shows a pleiotropic effect of the gene: d - dwarf, w - white seedling.
The mutation fsh1 A344 blocks the accumulation of storage substances in the endosperm. Therefore, protein content per kernel of the mutant primarily increases due to the contribution of the valuable embryo proteins. The four mutations designated as ffr loosen an endosperm to a greater extent than the identified opaque-2 allele. It results in less 100-kernel weight, in 1.4-2.3 times less, against the original alleles.
The mutation completely depressing kernel carotene and seedling chlorophyll synthesis is designated as fww1 W23. The mutation symbolized as fww1 W23 much surpasses an opaque-2 allele in its biochemical effect. When in a homozygous condition fmd1 W64A mutation proportionally decreases all kernel and plant parts.
A. S. Mashnenkov
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