University of Hawaii
Near isogenic lines of tropical inbred Hi27
--James L. Brewbaker

A series of marker genes, largely derived directly from Maize Genetics Coop, were backcrossed over the past three decades into inbred Hi27. An initial report of this program was presented in MGCN 46:33-37, 1972. The inbred Hi27 was selfed 7 times in Hawaii from CM104 (India), an inbred released in 1964 after 13 sib and 1 self generations in India from the Colombian flint, Amarillo Theobromina (unpublished 1964 report, Cooperative Maize Improvement Scheme, Rockefeller Foundation). It has wide tropical adaptability and pest resistance, and enters several important tropical hybrids (Kim et al, Proc. Corn and Sorghum Res. Conf. 29:118-133, 1974). Our studies suggest Hi27 to be homozygous for A1 A2 b Bz C-I Pl pr r Y p-ww (some NILs are p-wr); also for Ht1, Mv1 and Rp1-d backcrossed into it in Hawaii. Several linkages with QTLs are apparent in these NILs, as the parents are very different; i.e., Corn Belt dent vs. a tropical flint that is high-eared, daylength-sensitive, and has high general resistance to many diseases and pests of maize (Brewbaker, Logrono and Kim, Hawaii Inst. Tropical Agric. Res. Ser. 62, 1989).
Gene  Location # BCs Phenotype
a1 3L-149.0 4 colorless aleurone, green or brown plant
ad1 1L-108 7 adherent, tassel branches adhere
ae1 5L-57 1 amylose extender, high amylose endosperm
b1 2S-49 8 colored plant; B (on A Pl) boosts stalk color
ba1 3L-102 3 barren stalk
bd1 7L-109 5 branched silkless; ear is silkless, branched
bf1 9L-137 5 blue fluorescent
bif1 8-0 2 barren inflorescence (Bif1); few spikelets
bk1 9L-82 6 brittle-stalk; brittle leaves, tassels, etc. 
bm1 5S-41 5 brown midrib
bm2 1L-161 5 brown midrib2
bm3 4S-(55) 5 brown midrib3; low stalk lignin
bm4 9L-141 1 similar to bm1
br1 1L-81 5 brachytic; not GA-responsive
br2 1L-(64) 6 brachytic2; 35% reduction
br3 5-(-) 1 like br1
bt1 5L-42 6 brittle endosperm (carries a2)
bt2 4S-67 6 brittle endosperm; encodes ADPG pyroPP 
bz1 9S-31 5 bronze aleurone (modifies purple)
c1 9S-26 5 colored aleurone
cg1 3S-35 7 corn grass; Cg1 plants grassy
ch1 2L-155 8 chocolate pericarp; Ch1 plants tan pericarp
cr1 3S-26 6 crinkly leaf; plant dwarfed
ct1 8-(22) 1 compact plant; ear forked
d1 3S-44 3 dwarf; broad leaves; GA responsive
Dt1 9S-(-) 4 dotted aleurone; regulates A1 locus, is a1/a1
du1 10L-31 5 dull endosperm; branching enzyme
el1 8L-(-) 6 elongate (collapsed seed, unreduced gametes)
et1 3L-161 5 etched endosperm; virescent (lethal) seedling
f1 1L-86 4 fine stripe; virescent seedling
fl1 2S-68 7 floury endosperm
fl2 4S-39 8 floury2 endosperm; high lysine
g1 10L-50 7 golden plant; distinctive gold stalk
gl1 7L-36 4 glossy; cuticle wax altered, water adheres
gl2 2S-30 4 glossy2, like gl1
gs1 1L-135 1 green stripe, complementary to gs2
gs2 2S-54 1 green stripe, complementary to gs1
gt1 1S-(55) 4 grassy tiller; long flag leaves
h1 3S-(49) 3 horny (soft) starch
ij1 7L-52 4 iojap stripe; chloroplast defects, maternal
in1 7S-20 4 intensifies color (aleurone) on A C R Pr
j1 8L-80 7 japonica stripe
kn1 1L-133 3 knotted; Kn1` with proliferations
la1 4S-36 6 lazy; prostrate plant
lc1 10L-68 7 red leaf (Lc1 is presumed; origin uncertain)
lg1 2S-11 6 liguleless; ligule and auricle missing
lg2 3L-101 4 liguleless2; less extreme than lg1
lg3 3-65 7 liguleless3; Lg3 liguleless, leaves concave
li1 10L-(33) 1 lineate; fine, white stripes on basal leaves
lw1 1L-(134) 5 lemon-white; white seedling, pale yellow seed
mn1 2S-(68) 6 miniature seed
ms8 8L-66 6 male sterile8; anthers not exserted
ms10 10L-(45) 5 male sterile10; anthers not exserted
mv1 3-(80) 6 maize mosaic virus; Mv resistant
na1 3L-113 6 nana; dwarfed c. 90%, not GA responsive
na2 5S-(17) 6 nana2; like na1
o1 4L-98 6 opaque endosperm
o2 7S-16 6 opaque2endosperm; high lysine
og1 10S-19 9 old gold stripe; Og1 striped gold/white
oy1 10S-15 6 oil yellow; seedling yellow, stunted 
p-rr 1S-26 7 p1 locus; pericarp color; red cob, seed
p-rw 1S-26 7 p1 locus; red cob, colorless pericarp
p-vv 1S-26 10 p1 locus; variegated pericarp 
pg11 6L-38 1 pale green11; duplicate locus of pg12
pg12 9-61 1 see pg11
pl1 6L-49 3 purple plant; Pl purple (on A B)
pm1 3L-(73) 6 pale midrib; plant reduced in vigor
pn1 7L-112 7 papyrescent glumes; Pnlong papery glumes
px3 7L-(112) 2 peroxidase3; anodal, many plant tissues
py1 6L-69 6 pigmy; dwarfed, leaves thin, streaked
r-g 10L-64 3 colorless aleurone & plant on B Pl
R 10L-64 4 (R allele) colored aleurone & plant
R-nj 10L-64 6 R-nj, navajo (blotched) red aleurone 
ra2 3S-49 5 ramosa2; tassel branched, ear irregular
rf1 3S-(62) 8 restorer; Rf restores T cytoplasm
rf4 8-(0) 10 restorer; Rf4 restores C cytoplasm
rg1 3L-67 10 ragged leaf; Rg1 with torn leaves, dwarfed
rp1 10S-3 5 race-specific resistance (Rp1-d) to P.sorghi
rt1 3S-(60) 2 rootless; secondary roots few or absent
sh1 9S-29 5 shrunken endosperm; encodes sucrose syn.
sh2 3L-149. 6 shrunken2 endosperm; encodes ADPG PP
sk1 2S-56 4 silkless; pistils abort
sl1 7L-50 6 slashed; leaves split lengthwise
sr1 1S-0 5 striate leaf; white streaks, semi-dwarfed
su1 4S-66 6 sugary; debranching enzyme (two origins)
su2 6L-58 2 sugary2 endosperm; starchy, glassy
tp1 7L-46 7 teopod; Tp ith simple tassel, podded ears
ts2 1S-24 5 tassel seed2; tassel silky, ear compact
ts4 3L-73 5 tassel seed4; tassel compact, silky
ts5 4S-53 6 tassel seed5; Ts5 tassels with some silks
ts6 1L-158 2 tassel seed6; Ts6 tassels silky, compact
tu1 4L-101 10 tunicate; Tu1 kernels in long glumes
v2 5L-107 1 virescent; yellow-white, greens slowly
v4 2L-83 5 virescent4; greens slowly (carries fl)
v5 7S-24 6 virescent5; older leaves with white stripes
v16 8L-52 6 virescent16; like v2; segr ms(8?)
vg1 1L-85 1 vestigial glumes; Vg glumes short, no pollen
vp5 1S-1 3 viviparous; white endosperm & seedling 
w3 2L-111 1 white endosperm and seedling, some vivipary
ws3 2S-0 5 white sheath; whitened husks, culm
wx1 9S-56 6 waxy endosperm; also pollen with amylopectin
y1 6L-17 6 pale yellow endosperm; often white
yg2 9S-7 4 yellow green2; seedling, plant yellow, dwarf
zn1 10L-29 5 zebra necrotic; lvs. banded, necrotic tissue
Translocations and Cytoplasms:
T4-6b   10  
T4-10f    10  
T9-10a   9  
cms-C     female-transmitted, restored by Rf4 (and others)
cms-T      female transmitted, restored by Rf1 Rf2
New Mutants under Study:
blo   5 blotched leaves, pale stripes; from Hawaiian Sugar
bst   3 brown stripe; one of ys (yellow stripe) types?
lfl   4 leaf-fleck; dominant; like les1, larger lesions (segr. opaque and pale yellow)
si1   4 Coop's "ms-si" male-sterile; silky ears
sky   3 skinny plant; gross dwarf, like nl1 (narrow leaf)
tlb   5 tip leaf burn; maybe like bu1 (leaf burn)
zbc   4 zebra leaf (Caribbean Composite origin)
zbr   2 red zebra; plants with reddish zebra-marked leaves
"y8"   4 pale yellow endosperm, similar to y8 (7S-18), or y10; linked to o2
Multiple Genetic Marker Stocks
a Dt, A B Pl C R, A C R Pr, ae wx, wx bk2, br f, C sh bz wx, A et C R, la su, Og A B Pl, o2 y


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