SOFIA, BULGARIA
Institute of Genetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Maize immature embryo culture
--Todorova, L, Kruleva, M, Krapchev, B, Nedev, T

For development of maize tissue cultures it is important to find a flexible genotype among a pool with agronomic value. In our investigation the influence of the following factors: genotype, embryo size and plant hormone (Dicamba) was studied. Immature embryos for initiation were taken from field donors (selfed ears) during the summer of 1997 and were planted according to Bohorova (Maydica 40:275-281). The experiments included 8 representatives (see Table 1). The studied embryos were 0.5 - 3.0 mm in size. For each genotype at least 3 plants, 50 embryos per ear, were examined. These values were averaged and Student's criterion was used for statistical analysis of the results.

Genotype A619 possesses good plant regeneration capability (Table 1). The observed differences in the regeneration capacity suggested presence of a gene or block of genes with possibility to control the expression of embryogenic callus initiation.

The optimal embryo size for callus formation was determined to be 1.0 - 2.0 mm. It was found in our experiments that Dicamba was one of the best growth regulators for initiation and growth of regenerable maize calli. Similar conclusions were made by other authors (Bohorova, Hoisington D. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92 : 163 - 169, 1996).

Finally, an appropriate set of conditions for production of regenerants from A619, important for breeding programs, is proposed.

Table 1. The Influence of genotype on embryogenic formation and plant regeneration.
 
Genotype Embryogenic calli % Plant regeneration %
A619 28.97*** 20.00*
A344 16.92 -
A95/84 22.77 -
M320 11.08 -
Bup 116 4.83 -
W401 10.98 -
163 x A654 13.79 21.05
163 x Wf9 1.42  
***p < 0.001
*p < 0.05


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