Owing to its favorable chemical content, the maize kernel has multiple applications and it is used as feed, food and raw material in the food processing industry. Besides developing high yielding hybrids of standard kernel quality, there are also hybrids developed with increased content of oil, protein and starch.
Oil hybrids have not only increased oil content, but also enhanced content of essential amino acids, which increases the biological value of the kernel. Therefore, oil hybrids are used for the needs of the oil industry for production of edible oil of high quality, and owing to their increased biological value in relation to ordinary maize, they are used for feeding of domestic animals, especially poultry.
In order to produce lines for increased oil content, recurrent selection for phenotype has been used. The work on production of lines by the means of recurrent selection started in 1967 by establishing the original population. The original population was made of simple hybrids produced by cross breeding eight domestic and four foreign lines originating from the USA. Domestic lines, produced in Institute for Field and Vegetable Crops, were: NSL 637, 1006, 1083, 763, 816, 789, 897 and 796. Foreign lines were: R 30, 38-11, C 103 and HOI11.
The original population of the first
selection cycle had 5.72% oil. Oil content in analyzed S1 ears ranged from
5.17 - 6.91%, and their average was 6.19% oil. Average oil content in kernel
of selected S1 ears amounted to 6.41%. The population of the second cycle
produced from the hybrid combinations of the first cycle had 6.50% oil.
Oil content in the population of the third cycle was 7.79%, and the population
of the fourth cycle had an average oil content of 8.71%. From the 4th population
19 ears with the highest oil content were selected. In order to expand
genetic variability, oil synthetic Syn. D.O., with an oil content of 9.59%
was included for further selection. Oil content in the population from
the 5th cycle was 9.44% oil. Average oil content in the population from
the 6th cycle was 9.50%. The population of the 7th cycle had an average
oil content of 10.25%. Oil content in an average population sample of the
8th cycle was 10.48%. The population of the 9th cycle had an average oil
content of 11.13%. Oil content in an average population sample of the 10th
cycle was 10.71%. The 11th cycle population had an average oil content
of 9.86%. Oil content in an average population sample of the 12th cycle
was 11.43%. The 13th cycle population had an average oil content of 12.74%.
The 14th cycle population had an average oil content of 13.56%.
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