A new aspect of the shape effect of maize and chickpea plants
--Maslobrod, S, Ganea, A, Grati, M, Corlateanu, L, Romanova, I
Under the shape effect we understand the change of structure and function of the object of inanimate or animate nature under the influence of factors induced by geometrical figures such as cylinders, cones, pyramids, cupolas, etc. (Akimov, A.E., 1995; Narimanov, A.A., 2001). According to modern views, the torsion field of left (l) or right (d) rotation generated by these figures is laid on the basis of the shape effect (Akimov A.E., 1995). This is an informational field, it cannot be completely reduced to known physical fields (electromagnetic and gravitational), it has a high penetrating capacity and spreads with speed, exceeding then the velocity of light (Akimov, A.E., 1995).
For the first time, we have shown that under the influence of the torsion fields of these figures on the seeds of different plant species, the architectonics (structural leftness and rightness) of the seedlings change in absolute accordance with the vector (leftness and rightness) of rotation of the torsion field (Maslobrod, S.N., 2001). It is well known that l and d forms of plants differ according to the adaptive potential ecological resistance and productivity (Maslobrod, S.N. et al., 2002; Sulima, U.G., 1970).
Taking into account the wide presentation of different geometrical figures of abiotic and biotic origin in nature, and the different morphogenetic influences of their torsion fields on plant objects, we have advanced the supposition about the shape effect as a factor of ecology and plant growth (Maslobrod, S.N., 2001). Developing this idea, we have made an attempt to check the presence of the shape effect on plants, not only on the level of organisms, but also on the level of chromosomes.
For this we have used the criterion of the number of chromosome aberrations (NCA) in primary rootlets of seedlings (Pausheva Z. P., 1974). The materials for the tests were: the maize hybrids MK01i × 2.9M and M215, and the chickpea cultivar Krasnokutskii 195. The control was the NCA in the rootlets of seedlings from normal seeds and seeds which were exposed to presowing gamma-irradiation with doses of 250 Gy (MK01i × 2.9M and Krasnokutskii 195) and 500 Gy (M215). The seeds were germinated in growing-boxes, filled with black soil (chernozem). During the whole period of seed germination (up to 72 hours), short cylinders (SC) and long cylinders (LC) were placed above the growing-boxes. SC and LC have diameters less and more than half of the cylinders length (Akimov, A.E., 1995), and they generate, by our data, l and d torsion fields, accordingly (Maslobrod, S.N., 2001).
The main results of the action of torsion fields of SC and LC (Table 1) were:
Normal seeds. There was an essential increase of NCA in chickpea and maize in comparison with the control. There were no differences between the SC and LC variants. A tendency to exceed the LC variant was observed.
Gamma-irradiated seeds. The reduction of NCA compared to the control (gamma-irradiated seeds without the influence of the torsion fields) was obtained with the use of SC (the differences are significant for chickpea and maize M215), and the increase of NCA was obtained with the use of LC (the differences are significant for maize M215). There were observed differences between the SC and LC variants (significant for all objects).
Table 1. The number of chromosome aberrations (NCA) in maize seeds (hybrids MK01i × 2.9M and M215) and chickpea seeds (cultivar Krasnokutskii 195) under the influence of the torsion fields of short (SC) and long (LC) cylinders.
|Normal seeds||Gamma-irradiated seeds|
Note: n number of cells analyzed in ana-telophase; t teor. by P05 = 1.96
Thus, on the examples of representatives of cereals and legumes, a previously unknown shape effect on plants was revealed at the chromosomal level. The NCA in primary rootlets of seedlings from normal seeds is sharply increased, and in seedlings from gamma-irradiated seeds this number is either reduced (with the influence of the left torsion field of SC on seeds) or increased (with the influence of the right torsion field of LC). Evidently the dose of presowing gamma-irradiation of seeds also influences this effect (the differences were more contrasting on maize with a dose of 500 Gy, than with 250 Gy). A modifying influence of genotype is not expected.
In light of the data obtained our point of view about the shape effect as a factor of ecology and plant growth has received further confirmation. The data obtained presume that torsion fields of geometrical figures (cylinders, in particular) can evidently be considered as a new, non-traditional radio protective and mutagenic factor of natural and artificial origin.