University of Craiova

The influence of the low temperatures on seeds’ germination of local populations of maize (Dorina bonea, viorica urechean, and marius paraschivu)

— Urechean, V

Diminution of soil temperatures and late frosts in the spring are frequent phenomena in all regions of our country.

The tolerance of the maize genotypes in low temperatures represents in fact the resumption of the metabolic processes and the rehabilitation of the plants after the thermic shock.

The study of the local germplasm is imposed by the necessity of creating maize productive hybrids with resistance at low temperatures, with a view to selecting tolerant parental forms.

As a result, the present paper examines the tolerance of some local populations (from the Research Station Simnic-Craiova region) at low temperatures, using them to create hybrids of maize.

From those ten local populations tested for their reaction at low temperatures, we have established the rate of the seeds’ germination in three conditions:

  1. the control variant, temperatures of 23±1°C, in laboratory conditions;
  2. low constant temperatures for seven days, in refrigerated conditions, at 4±1°C;
  3. alternative temperatures, 12 hours at temperature of 23±1°C and 12 hours in refrigerator at temperature of 4±1°C.

The germination of the seeds has been determinated in Petry pots and on paper filters, and the results interpreted by statistical analysis.

As for the influence of the treatments (Table 1) on the seeds’ germination, it can be noticed that the alternative treatment didn’t have a visible effect, because the results which have been obtained and those of the control variant are almost the same.

Table 1. The influence of A factor (the treatments) on the rates of the seeds’ germination

A factor Germination s
% ± d
a0 (control) 85.3    
a1 (low const. temp.) 73.3 -12 00
a2 (alternative temp.) 84.1 -1.2  

LD 5% = 4.85; LD 1% = 8.02; LD 0.1% = 15.02

The differences between the control and the treatment with low constant temperatures are negative and statistically provided taking into account the distinct level.

Obvious differences are noticeable among the rates of the germination upon examination of the differences between the two media of the B factor (local population — Table 2).

Table 2. The influence of B factor (local populations) on the rates of the seeds’ germination

B factor Germination s
% ± d
b1 (LP1) 54.3 -27.9 000
b2 (LP2) 82.7 +0.5  
b3 (LP3) 94.4 +12.2 ***
b4 (LP4) 84.4 +2.2  
b5 (LP5) 97.1 +14.9 ***
b6 (LP6) 76.6 -5.6 00
b7 (LP7) 72.2 -10 000
b8 (LP8)-contr. 82.2 -  
b9 (LP9) 73.3 -8.9 000
b10 (LP10) 91.6 +9.4 ***

LD 5% = 3.50; LD 1% = 4.67; LD 0.1% = 6.09

The local population (LP8) was used as control because the average of the rate of the seeds’ germination is close to the average of the experiment.

Thus, the local populations LP3, LP5, LP10 are remarkable in their meaningful positive differences in comparison with the control.

The local populations LP1, LP7 and LP9 present low rates of the seeds’ germination (by comparison with the control) statistically provided at a very important level.

The two factors A×B (treatment × local populations) interact and register the following results (Table 3):

Table 3. The influence of interaction of A×B’s factors (treatments × local populations) on the rates of germination

A×B Germination s
% ± d
a0 b1 58.3 -26.7 000
b2 90 +5  
b3 96.6 +11.6 *
b4 86.6 +1.6  
b5 98.3 +13.3 *
b6 81.6 -3.4  
b7 75 -10  
b8-contr. 85    
b9 88.3 +3.3  
b10 93.3 +8.3  
a1 b1 45 -30 000
b2 70 -5  
b3 91.6 +16.6 **
b4 80 +5  
b5 96.6 +21.6 ***
b6 63.3 -11.7 0
b7 63.3 -11.7 0
b8-contr. 75    
b9 56.6 -18.4 000
b10 91.6 +16.6 **
a2 b1 60 -26.6 000
b2 88.3 +1.7  
b3 95 +8.4  
b4 86.6 0  
b5 76.6 +10  
b6 85 -1.6  
b7 78.3 -8.3  
b8-contr. 86.6    
b9 75 -11.6 0
b10 90 +3.4  

LD 5% = 10.36; LD 1% = 13.82; LD 0.1% = 18

For instance, the rates of seeds’ germination are between 58.3 rates (a0b1) and 98.3 rates (a0b5), for a control variant with a difference of 40 rates.

The treatment with low constant temperatures has its limits of germination between 45 rates (a1b1) and 96.6 rates.

Alternative temperatures lead to a germination with a percentage between 60 rates (a2b1) and 96.6 rates (a2b5).

In conclusion, we can say that the local populations of maize which have been studied respond in different ways to the application of the treatments with low temperatures and this matter can be observed from the values of the germination’s rate. The treatment with low constant temperatures emphasizes in a better way the tolerance/sensibility of the populations at low temperatures.

Please Note: As is the policy with the printed version, notes submitted to the Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter may be cited only with consent of the authors.

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